Anthology of 25 Years of Socio-Informatics

This anthology was composed on the occasion of a conference on “25 Years of Socio-Informatics – Where do we come from? Where are we? Where to go from here?”, taking place in June 2022 in Siegen, Germany. Its main purpose is to present a selection milestones of 25 years of research by authors from the International Institute for Socio-Informatics (IISI) and the University of Siegen.

The collection is structured in seven chapters (chapter 2 – 8), covering the main thematic research areas of the group. New contributions to this volume are the introductions to each of these chapters and opinion pieces from prominent scholars at the end of each chapter. Moreover, the first chapter was written exclusively for this reader, providing an introduction into Socio-Informatics.

The full text of the anthology can be downloaded here, or can be read article by article through the single pdfs below.

Preface

Claudia Müller, Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek, Markus Rohde, Gunnar Stevens, and Volker Wulf

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Socio-Informatics - A Practice-Based Research and Design Paradigm

Markus Rohde, Claudia Müller, Thomas Ludwig, Gunnar Stevens, Volkmar Pipek, Volker Wulf

Abstract / PDF

Abstract:
 

The paper provides an introduction into Socio-Informatics and an overview about socio-informatic research, concepts and methods in the understanding of scholars from the University of Siegen and the International Institute for Socio-Informatics (IISI). We introduce the field in its historical context and provide a definition of Socio-Informatics - an emerging field of design research. Institutional and (inter-)disciplinary trajectories of our research tradition are presented and relevant conceptual foundations and methodological frameworks are described. Moreover, a socio-informatic research program is motivated and reflected and potential issues and directions for future research are discussed. The contribution is based on and sums up experiences and insights from 25 years of socio-informatic research.

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Introduction to Knowledge-Intense Work

Volker Wulf, Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek, Markus Rohde

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2.1 Publications

 

A New Dimension in Access Control: Studying Maintenance Engineering across Organizational Boundaries

Gunnar Stevens and Volker Wulf

Proceedings of ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW 2002), ACM-Press, New York 2002, 196 - 205

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Inter- inter-organizational cooperation, case study, access control, tailorability

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Inter-organizational cooperation has specific requirements for access control. The paper presents the results from a field study which looks at the cooperation between two engineering offices and a steel mill. Based on these findings we have developed new mechanisms for access control in groupware. These mechanisms allow to restrict operations on shared data while or even after they take place. The new access mechanisms can be decomposed and implemented into a component-based framework. We show how this framework can be extended to realize additional mechanisms for access control with little efforts.

 

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Expert Recommender Systems in Practice: Evaluating Semi-automatic Profile Generation

Tim Reichling and Volker Wulf

Proceedings of ACM Conference on Computer Human Interaction (CHI 2009), ACM-Press, New York 2009, 59 – 68

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Expertise Recommender System, Knowledge Management, Second Wave

Abstract:

 

Expert recommender systems (ERS) are considered a promising technology in knowledge management. However, there are very few studies which evaluated their appropriation in practice. In this paper, we present results of a case study of expert recommender technology in a large European industrial association. Unlike existing expert recommender approaches, the system involves users in selecting textual documents for semi-automatic profile generation. Our study focuses on the appropriation of this functionality and discusses impacts from an organizational perspective.

 

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Context Grabbing: Assigning Metadata in Large Document Collections

Joachim Hinrichs, Volkmar Pipek and Volker Wulf

Proceedings of the Ninth European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (ECSCW 2005), Springer, Dordrecht 2005, 367 – 386

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Abstract:

 

Classification schemes are an important issue in the collective use of large document collections. We have investigated the classification of technical documentations in two engineering domains: a steel mill and a sewerage plant company. In both cases we found a coexistence of different classification schemes and problems resulting from distributed local archives. In supporting human actors to maintain different classifications schemes while working on a common archive, we developed the concept of context grabbing. It allows assigning context information efficiently in the form of meta-data. Based on a document management system, a tool kit for context grabbing was developed. Its evaluation in a sewerage service company allows us to comment on important aspects of understanding the role of classifications in collaborative work.

 

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Knowledge sharing practices and the impact of cultural factors: reflections on two case studies of offshoring in SME

Alexander Boden, Gabriela Avram, Liam Bannon and Volker Wulf

Journal of Software Maintenance Vol. 24, No. 2, 2012, 139-152

Abstract / Keywords / PDF

 

 

Keywords:

 

global software engineering; culture; small enterprises; nowledge haring practices; offshoring; ethnographically informed studies

Abstract:

 

The impact of culture on knowledge management in international teams is an important topic which is still not well understood. We contribute to the discussion by presenting two case studies of small software teams involved in distributed software development. In doing so, we illustrate how cultural and social issues influence the way knowledge exchange is performed by analyzing four knowledge sharing practices: status meetings and maintaining awareness, the collaborative use of shared artifacts and repositories, spending time at the other site and human ‘bridges’ that mediate between people and cultures. Our findings suggest that organizational culture is permanently re-negotiated and adjusted to fit the distributed collaboration, as the teams learn how to deal with each other. Socialization plays a significant role in this learning process, and people are more likely to draw on national stereotypes when breakdowns occur. The influences of national culture and site-specific organizational culture are subtle and not easy to separate from other factors. Based on our experience, we argue that in order to achieve an accurate understanding of knowledge sharing practices in globally distributed software teams, these need to be studied in context, longitudinally, and from both the onshore and offshore perspectives. Copyright q 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

 

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Cyber-Physical Systems for Knowledge and Expertise Sharing in Manufacturing Contexts: Towards a Model Enabling Design

Sven Hoffmann, Aparecido Fabiano Pinatti de Carvalho, Nils Darwin Abele, Marcus Schweitzer, Peter Tolmie, Volker Wulf

Journal of Comput. Support. Cooperative WorkCSCW), Vol. 28(3-4): 469-509 (2019)

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Keywords:

 

Knowledge Sharing, Expertise Sharing, Manufacturing Context, Cyber-Physical Systems, Augmented Reality, Sensor Technology

Abstract:

 

Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are currently attracting a great deal of attention as a part of the discourse surrounding the fourth industrial revolution. Thus far, the chief focus has been upon complex architectures for supply chain-wide data exchange between intelligent machines. Here, however, we take a very different tack by examining the support CPS may offer for the exchange and acquisition of knowledge- intensive human practices in the context of manual set-up processes on modern production machines. The paper offers contributions to both CSCW and the ongoing development of CPS in three ways. Firstly, it presents a detailed empirical study of knowledge and expertise sharing practices in a production environ- ment. Secondly, the results of this study are used as the basis of an over-arching model that was developed with the express purpose of facilitating design. Finally, CPS-based technical possibilities are matched to the practice-relevant knowledge and expertise sharing requirements captured within the model.

 

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Enriching the Distressing Reality: Social Media Use by Chinese Migrant Workers

Jingjing Liu, Alexander Boden, David Randall, Volker Wulf

Proceedings of the ACM Conference of Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW 2014), ACM Press New York, 2014, 710-721

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China; social media; virtual identity; migrant worker; field study

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Based on a field study in Guangdong Province, this paper describes the social media use of Chinese migrant workers in the manufacturing sector. It was found that social media plays a significant role in the lives of young workers who have left their rural hometowns in early adulthood and struggle to survive in the urban centers. They buy expensive IT devices to gain a social reputation, as social media provides opportunities for self-expression; strengthens their self-consciousness; and to a certain extent, influences their world view. For most of the workers in our study, social media has become a very important part of leisure time and entertainment. Moreover, the life in virtual worlds provides them a psychological compensation mechanism to temporarily avoid the pressure of their daily lives.

 

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2.2 Opinion Pieces

 

On the Dialectics of Form and Process – Comments on computer systems in knowledge intensive work

Peter Brödner

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Some remarks on Knowledge Intense Work

Mark Ackerman

University of Michigan

 

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Introduction to Sustainable consumption

Gunnar Stevens

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3.1 Publications

 

Uncovering Practices of Making Energy Consumption Accountable: A Phenomenological Inquiry

Tobias Schwartz, Gunnar Stevens, Leonardo Ramirez, Volker Wulf

ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, Vol. 20, No. 2, Article 12, Publication date: May 2013

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Keywords:
 

Energy, sustainability, phenomenology

Abstract:
 

Reacting to the discussion on global warming, the HCI community has started to explore the design of tools to support responsible energy consumption. An important part of this research focuses on motivating energy savings by providing feedback tools which present consumption metrics interactively. In this line of work, the configuration of feedback has been mainly discussed using cognitive or behavioral factors. This narrow focus, however, misses a highly relevant perspective for the design of technology that supports sustainable lifestyles: to investigate the multiplicity of forms in which individuals or collectives actually consume energy. In this article, we broaden this focus, by taking a phenomenological lens to study how people use off-the- shelf eco-feedback systems in private households to make energy consumption accountable and explainable. By reconstructing accounting practices, we delineate several constitutive elements of the phenomenon of energy usage in daily life. We complement these elements with a description of the sophisticated methods used by people to organize their energy practices and to give a meaning to their energy consumption. We describe these elements and methods, providing examples coming from the fieldwork and uncovering observed strategies to account for consumption. Based on our results, we provide a critical perspective on existing eco-feedback mechanisms and describe several elements for a design rationale for designing support for responsible energy consumption. We argue that interactive feedback systems should not simply be an end, but rather a resource for the construction of the artful practice of making energy consumption accountable.

 

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What People Do with Consumption Feedback: A Long-Term Living Lab Study of a Home Energy Management System

Tobias Schwartz, Gunnar Stevens, Timo Jakobi, Sebastian Denef, Leonardo Ramirez, Volker Wulf, David Randall

Interacting with Computers, 27 (6), 2014, 551-576

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Keywords:
 

user studies; empirical studies in interaction design; sustainability

Abstract:
 

One of the great societal challenges that we face today concerns the move to more sustainable patterns of energy consumption, reflecting the need to balance both individual consumer choice and societal demands. In order for this ‘energy turnaround’ to take place, however, reducing residential energy consumption must go beyond using energy-efficient devices: More sustainable behaviour and lifestyles are essential parts of future ‘energy aware’ living. Addressing this issue from an HCI perspective, this paper presents the results of a 3-year research project dealing with the co-design and appropriation of a Home Energy Management System (HEMS) that has been rolled out in a living lab setting with seven households for a period of 18 months. Our HEMS is inspired by feedback systems in Sustainable Interaction Design and allows the monitoring of energy consumption in real-time. In contrast to existing research mainly focusing on how technology can persuade people to consume less energy (‘what technology does to people’), our study focuses on the appropriation of energy feedback systems (‘what people do with technology’) and how newly developed practices can become a resource for future technology design. Therefore, we deliberately followed an open research design. In keeping with this approach, our study uncovers various responses, practices and obstacles of HEMS use. We show that HEMS use is characterized by a number of different features. Recognizing the distinctive patterns of technology use in the different households and the evolutionary character of that use within the households, we conclude with a discussion of these patterns in relation to existing research and their meaning for the design of future HEMSs.

 

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Going Vegan: The Role(s) of ICT in Vegan Practice Transformation

Dennis Lawo, Margarita Esau, Philip Engelbutzeder and Gunnar Stevens

Sustainability 2020, 12, 5184; doi:10.3390/su12125184

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Keywords:
 

Vegan; Practice Theory; Co-Evolution; ICT; Consumer Informatics; Sustainability; Design

Abstract:
 

With the debate on climate change, topics of diet change and the reduction of animal products have become increasingly important in both public and academic discourses. However, sustainable ICT studies have so far focused on individual aspects, in particular investigating the criticized persuasive design approach. We argue for a broader perspective on the role(s) of ICT, one that helps in identifying opportunities to support consumer practice transformation, beyond motivational aspects. Based on retrospective interviews with 16 vegans, we argue to understand practice transformation as co-evolution of practices and ICT artefacts, as this perspective helps to understand how tensions arising from complex entanglements of practices, socio-material contexts, and communities can be resolved. Rather than a motivational process, we observe various roles of ICT artefacts co-evolving with practices: Ranging from initial irritation, to access to information about vegan practices, to the learning of vegan food literacy, to the negotiation of a vegan identity, and vegan norms at the intersection of the ‘odd’ and the ‘norm’.

 

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Opportunities for Sustainable Mobility: Re-thinking Eco-feedback from a Citizen’s Perspective

Johanna Meurer, Dennis Lawo, Christina Pakusch

C&T '19: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Communities & Technologies - Transforming Communities, June 2019, Pages 102–113, https://doi.org/10.1145/3328320.3328391

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Keywords:
 

Sustainable mobility; eco-feedback tools; mobile phone data; mobility; interview study

Abstract:
 

In developed nations, a growing emphasis is being placed on the promotion of sustainable behaviors amongst individuals, or ‘citizen-consumers’. In HCI, various eco-feedback tools have been designed as persuasive instruments, with a strong normative appeal geared to encouraging citizens to conduct a more sustainable mobility. However, many critiques have been formulated regarding this ‘paternalistic’ stance. In this paper, we switched the perspective from a designer’s to a citizen’s point of view and explored how people would use eco-feedback tools to support sustainable mobility in their city. In the study, we conducted 14 interviews with citizens who had used eco-feedback previously. The findings indicate new starting points that could inform future eco-feedback tools. These encompass: (1) better information regarding how sustainable mobility is measured and monitored; (2) respect for individual mobility situations and preferences; and (3) the scope for participation and the sharing of responsibility between citizens and municipal city services.

 

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Social dependency and mobile autonomy – Supporting older adults’ mobility with ridesharing ICT

Johanna Meurer; Martin Stein; David Randall; Markus Rohde; Volker Wulf

Proceedings of ACM Conference on Computer Human Interaction (CHI 2014), ACM-Press, New York 2014, 1923-1932

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Keywords:
 

Dynamic Ridesharing, Elderly, Design, Ethnography, Social Experiences.

Abstract:
 

Alternative mobility modes for older adults are increasingly important for economic, ecological and social reasons. A promising option is ridesharing, defined as use of the same vehicle by two or more people traveling to a common destination. In particular, mobile computer supported rideshaing provides a promising way to enlarge older adults’ mobility choices in addition to private driving and public transportation options. In order to understand the opportunities and obstacles of ridesharing from the point of view of elderly people, we conducted an interview study in order to examining ridesharing experiences. It turns out that ‘mobile independence’ and ‘decisional autonomy’ are key issues for mobile wellbeing. This partially conflicts with common ridesharing concepts. Hence, we further analyze older adults’ strategies dealing with these conflicts and show that these strategies offer departure points for the design rides- haring solutions, which are better suited to the demands of older adults.

 

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Mobility in Later Life: Appropriation of an Integrated Transportation Platform

Martin Stein, Johanna Meurer, Alexander Boden, Volker Wulf

Proceedings of ACM Conference on Computer Human Interaction (CHI 2017), ACM-Press, New York: 5716-5729

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Keywords:
 

Transportation; Mobility; Elderly; Participatory Design; Qualitative Research

Abstract:
 

We present the results of a design case study focusing on supporting the daily transportation of elderly in Germany. We conceptualized, developed and studied the appropriation of a transportation information system intended to ease switching between different transportation modes. Based on a literature review and a context study with 21 interviews we explored routinized transport mode usage and barriers when switching between modes. Iteratively, we co-designed a transport platform accessible via a website, a mobile app, and an iTV app. We further looked at the appropriation of the platform into the daily lives of 19 persons. Studying the appropriation highlighted different factors that facilitate the adoption of alternative transport options. The factors included reducing uncertainty, complementing transport information with context information (e.g. weather) and providing informational access based on the user’s preferences as well as fitting in with the situational needs (activity related).

 

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Travelling by Taxi Brousse in Madagascar: An Investigation in Practices of Overland Transportation

Volker Wulf, Kaoru Misaki, Dave Randall, Markus Rohde

Media in Action, Issue 1, 2019, 57 - 98

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Keywords:

Abstract:
 

Organising public mobility is a global challenge. However, most studies directed at ICT support approach the subject from the perspective of developed countries. In contrast, we conducted a modest and initial attempt to study practices of public transportation in Madagascar – one of the poorest countries in Africa. We found that central assumptions, usually unquestioned in prevailing studies, were challenged in the context of this developing country. We present an empirical study which analyses how collective taxis, locally called Taxi Brousses, are used in overland travel. The study reveals complex socio-political conditions which passengers face in this country. Security as well as corruption issues shape these transportation practices. Based on our findings, we indicate opportunities for supporting intra-organisational cooperation and the customers’ interaction with ICT artefacts.

 

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Using Time and Space Efficiently in Driverless Cars: Findings of a Co-Design Study

Gunnar Stevens, Paul Bossauer, Stephanie Vonholdt, Christina Pakusch

CHI 2019, May 4–9, 2019, Glasgow, Scotland, UK

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Keywords:
 

Self-Driving Cars; Value of Time; Car Interior Design; Co-Design; Design-Fiction

Abstract:
 

The alternative use of travel time is one of the widely discussed benefits of driverless cars. We therefore conducted 14 co-design sessions to examine how people manage their time, to determine how they perceive the value of time in driverless cars and to derive design implications. Our findings suggest that driverless mobility will affect both people’s use of travel time as well as their time management in general. The participants repeatedly stated the desire of completing tasks while traveling to save time for activities that are normally neglected in their everyday life. Using travel time efficiently requires using car space efficiently, too. We found out that the design concept of tiny houses could serve as common design pattern to deal with the limited space within cars and support diverse needs.

 

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A Wizard of Oz Study on Passengers’ Experiences of a Robo-Taxi Service in Real-Life Settings

Johanna Meurer, Christina Pakusch, Gunnar Stevens, Peter Tolmie, Volker Wulf:

DIS '20, July 6–10, 2020, Eindhoven, Netherlands, https://doi.org/10.1145/3357236.3395465

Abstract / Keywords / PDF

 
 

Keywords:
 

Robo-taxi; Shared Autonomous Vehicles; Wizard of OZ; Service Design; Passengers

Abstract:
 

Autonomous driving enables new mobility concepts such as shared-autonomous services. Although significant research has been done on passenger-car interaction, work on passenger interaction with robo-taxis is still rare. In this paper, we tackle the question of how passengers experience robo-taxis as a service in real-life settings to inform the interaction design. We conducted a Wizard of Oz study with an electric vehicle where the driver was hidden from the passenger to simulate the service experience of a robo-taxi. 10 participants had the opportunity to use the simulated shared-autonomous service in real-life situations for one week. By the week’s end, 33 rides were completed and recorded on video. Also, we flanked the study conducting interviews before and after with all participants. The findings provided insights into four design themes that could inform the service design of robo-taxis along the different stages including hailing, pickup, travel, and drop-off.

 

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3.2 Opinion Piece

 

Comments on Sustainable Consumption

Alan Borning

Paul G Allen School of Computer Science & Engineering at the University of Washington

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Introduction to Crisis Informatics

Thomas Ludwig und Volker Wulf

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4.1 Publications

 

Landmarke: an ad hoc deployable ubicomp infrastructure to support indoor navigation of firefighters

Leonardo Ramirez; Matthias Betz; Tobias Dyrks; Markus Scholz; Jan Gerwinski; Volker Wulf

Personal and Ubiquitous Computing (PUC), Vol. 16, Issue 8, 2012, 1025 - 1038

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Keywords:
 

Indoor navigation · Navigation · Orientation · Mobile ad hoc network · Firefighting · Wearable computing · Sensor networks · Ad hoc deployment · Ubiquitous computing · Human–computer interaction

Abstract:
 

Indoor navigation plays a central role for the safety of firefighters. The circumstances in which a fire- fighting intervention occurs represent a rather complex challenge for the design of supporting technology. In this paper, we present the results of our work designing an ad hoc ubicomp infrastructure to support navigation of fire- fighters working in structure fires inside the zone of danger. We take a wider approach, complementing the technical questions with the development of effective navigation practices based on technology available today. We provide an overview of the complete design process, from the theoretical and empirical underpinnings to the construction and evaluation of three iterations of the platform. We report the results of our evaluation and the implications and tensions uncovered in this process, and we discuss the challenges and implications of it for the design of ubicomp for firefighters.

 

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EmergencyMessenger: A Text based Communication Concept for Indoor Firefighting

Matthias Betz Volker Wulf

Proceedings of ACM Conference on Computer Human Interaction (CHI 2014), ACM-Press, New York 2014, 1515-1524

Abstract / Keywords / PDF

 
 

Keywords:
 

Firefighting; communication; cooperation; text; messaging; indoor; monitoring; autonomy; safety; security

Abstract:
 

Finding and rescuing missing or injured people or fighting fire inside burning buildings is a central challenge for fire brigades. To ensure the safety of indoor work, monitoring the operations of firefighting units is crucial. As in most countries, firefighters in Germany utilize radio sets to establish voice communication between indoor operating units and the supervisory structure outside. Based on findings from a long term ethnographic study in cooperation with different German fire brigades over a time span of more than 5 years we analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of the current voice over radio communication tactics and techniques. We designed and evaluated a complementary text based communication device-the EMERGENCY- MESSENGER-to support the time critical work of indoor units working under harsh conditions, wearing Self- Contained-Breathing-Apparatus (SCBA). We conducted 13 full scale training missions including extensive debriefings to design and evaluate the communication concept and the corresponding device.

 

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Information and Expertise Sharing in Inter-Organizational Crisis Management

Benedikt Ley, Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek, Dave Randall, Christian Reuter & Torben Wiedenhoefer

Inter-Organizational Crisis Management, Computer Supported Cooperative Work: The Journal of Collaborative Computing (JCSCW) 23(4-6), 347-387, pdf, doi:10.1007/s10606-014-9205-2

Abstract / Keywords / PDF

 
 

Keywords:
 

Information management, Expertise sharing, Collaboration, Design case study, Inter-organizational crisis management, CSCW

Abstract:
 

Emergency or crisis management, as is well-attested, is a complex management problem. A variety of agencies need to collaborate and coordinate in real-time and with an urgency that is not always present in other domains. It follows that accurate information of varying kinds (e.g. geographical and weather conditions; available skills and expertises; state-of-play; current dispositions and deployments) needs to be made available in a timely fashion to the organizations and individuals who need it. By definition, this information will come from a number of sources both within and across organizations. Large-scale events in particular necessitate collaboration with other organizations. Of course, plans and processes exist to deal with such events but the number of dynamically changing factors as well as the high number of heterogeneous organizations and the high degree of interdependency involved make it impossible to plan for all contingencies. A degree of ongoing improvisation, which typically occurs by means of a variety of information and expertise sharing practices, therefore becomes necessary. This, however, faces many challenges, such as different organizational cultures, distinct individual and coordinative work practices and discrete information systems. Our work entails an examination of the practices of information and expertise sharing, and the obstacles to it, in inter-organizational crisis management. We conceive of this as a design case study, such that we examine a problem area and its scope; conduct detailed enquiries into practice in that area, and provide design recommendations for implementation and evaluation. First, we will present the results of an empirical study of collaboration practices between organizations and public authorities with security responsibilities such as the police, fire departments, public administration and electricity network operators, mainly in scenarios of medium to large power outages in Germany. Based on these results, we will describe a concept, which was designed, implemented and evaluated as a system prototype, in two iterations. While the first iteration focuses on situation assessment, the second iteration also includes inter-organizational collaboration functionalities. Based on the findings of our evaluations with practitioners, we will discuss how to support collaboration with a particular focus on information and expertise sharing.

 

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What You See Is What I Need: Mobile Reporting Practices in Emergencies

Thomas Ludwig, Christian Reuter, Volkmar Pipek

Proceedings of the European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (ECSCW), Olav W. Bertelsen, Luigina Ciolfi, Antonietta Grasso, George Angelos Papadopoulos (Hrsg.), 181-206, Paphos, Cyrus: Springer, pdf, doi:10.1007/978-1-4471-5346-7_10

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Keywords:

Abstract:
 

Decisions of emergency response organisations (police, fire fighters, infrastructure providers, etc.) rely on accurate and timely information. Some necessary information is integrated into control centre’s IT (weather, availability of electricity, gauge information, etc.), but almost every decision needs to be based on very specific information of the current crisis situation. Due to the unpredictable nature of a crisis, gathering this kind of information requires much improvisation and articulation work which we aim to support. We present a study on how different emergency response organisations communicate with teams on-site to generate necessary information for the coordinating instances, and we described, implemented and evaluated an interaction concept as well as a prototype to support this communication by a semi-structured request-and-report system based on Android devices. We learned that (1) the accuracy of request and reports can be improved by using an appropriate metadata structure in addition to creating multimedia-based information content, (2) requirements of trusted and fast information need to be respected in support concepts although they may even be contradictory, and (3) the coordination strategy of the emergency response organisation also shapes the way this interaction needs to be designed.

 

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CrowdMonitor: Mobile Crowd Sensing for Assessing Physical and Digital Activities of Citizens during Emergencies

Thomas Ludwig, Christian Reuter, Tim Siebigteroth, Volkmar Pipek

Proceedings of the International Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI), Bo Begole, Kim Jinwoo, Inkpeni Kor, Woo Woontack (Hrsg.), 4083-4092, New York, USA: ACM Press, pdf

Abstract / Keywords / PDF

 
 

Keywords:
 

Emergency Management; Crowdsourcing; Mobile Crowd Sensing; Social Media; Design Case Study

Abstract:
 

Emergencies such as the 2013 Central European flood or the 2013 typhoon Haiyan in Philippines have shown how citizens can organize themselves and coordinate private relief activities. These activities can be found in (physical) groups of affected people, but also within (digital) social media communities. There is an evident need, however, for a clearer picture of what exactly is going on to be available for use by the official emergency services: to enlist them, to keep them safe, to support their efforts and to avoid need- less duplications or conflicts. Aligning emergency services and volunteer activities is, then, crucial. In this paper we present a mobile crowd sensing based concept, which was designed as well as implemented as the application CrowdMonitor and facilitates the detection of physical and digital activities and the assignment of specific tasks to citizens. Finally we outline the findings of its evaluation.

 

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Introduction to “IT, Health and Ageing”

Claudia Müller

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5.1 Publications

 

How live streaming church services promotes social participation in rural areas

David Struzek, Martin Dickel, Dave Randall, Claudia Müller

Interactions 27(1), 64-69, doi:10.1145/3373263

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Abstract:
 

"In 2000, Robert Putnam’s Bowling Alone was published. It represented the culmination of a trend in community studies, which identified a decline in the solidarities that define “community” [1]. Of interest is the fact that Putnam’s argument is founded in part on an analysis of religious behavior. Putnam

was clear that community was in decline and that the networks that define it would disappear. At much the same time, however, a wholly different trajectory was evident in studies of online communities, where different kinds of networks were seen to be growing [2]. Such discussions matter, above all, at the point where the online and offline intersect. That is, there is both a challenge to and an opportunity for the maintenance of physically located communities via online support [3]. One such opportunity is presented by live streaming, used by millions every day.

Platforms like Twitch.tv (https://www. twitch.tv/), with a number of functions to foster not only community building but also the interaction between the users and streamers, are developing rapidly [4,5]."

 

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Social Technology Appropriation in Dementia: Investigating the Role of Caregivers in engaging People with Dementia with a Videogame-based Training System

Unbehaun David, Aal Konstantin, Vaziri Daryoush, Tolmie Peter, Wieching Rainer, Randall Dave, Wulf Volker

Proceedings of the 2020 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '20). DOI:10.1145/3313831.3376648

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Keywords:
 

Care, Dementia, ICT, Exergame, Caregiver, Appropriation

Abstract:
 

There has been increasing interest in designing for dementia in recent years. Empirical investigation is now needed of the long-term role of caregivers in appropriating ICTs into the complex daily life of people with dementia (PwD). We present here the outcomes of a 4-month evaluation of the individual, social and institutional impact of a videogame- based training system. The everyday behavior and interactions of 52 PwD and 25 caregivers was studied qualitatively, focusing on the role played by caregivers in integrating the system into daily routines. Our results indicate that the successful appropriation of ICT for PwD depends partly on the physical, cognitive and social benefits for PwD, but especially on the added value perceived by their social care-network. We discuss the need for design in dementia to develop more socially embedded innovations that can address the social actors involved and thus contribute to practical solutions for professional and private care.

 

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Designing for Sustainability: Key Issues of ICT Projects for Ageing at Home

Johanna Meurer, Claudia Müller, Carla Simone, Ina Wagner, Volker Wulf

Computer Supported Cooperative Work Vol. 27, No. 3-6, 2018: 495-537

Abstract / Keywords / PDF

 
 

Keywords:
 

ICT design, Sustainability, Elderly people, Appropriation, Capacity building, Funding schemes, Collective learning

Abstract:
 

Achieving the sustainability of IT-based solutions is a challenge. We will argue in this paper that it is helpful to conceptualize designing for sustainable IT-based solutions as taking place in a multi- dimensional space. It requires thinking about how a project is framed; the perspectives and commitments of the project partners; the type of innovation that is foregrounded; the motivations and needs of the user group; and the level of sustainability a project or research program may achieve. The paper describes some of the challenges and possible solutions by revisiting a portfolio of projects that developed IT support for elderly people who continue living in their own homes

 

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Design of a GPS Monitoring System for Dementia Care and its Challenges in Academia-Industry Project

Lin Wan, Claudia Müller, Dave Randall Wulf

ACM Transactions on Computer Human Interaction (ToCHI), Vol. 23, No. 5, 2016, Article No. 31

Abstract / Keywords / PDF

 
 

Keywords:
 

Wandering behavior, GPS monitoring system, design research, joint research

Abstract:
 

We present a user-centered development process for a GPS monitoring system to be used in dementia care to support care for persons with wandering behavior. The usage of GPS systems in dementia care is still very low. The paper takes a socio-technical stance on development and appropriation of GPS technology in dementia care and assesses the practical and ideological issues surrounding care to understand why. The results include: 1) Results from qualitative user studies from which design ideas, implications and requirements for design and redesign were developed. 2) Description of the politics, negotiations, and challenges encountered in the project at hand. These processual matters had a powerful impact on the product that was finally envisaged. The design process was taken as a whole to illuminate the way in which design outcomes are arrived at and to foster discussion about how ‘best practice’ might possibly be achieved.

 

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Designing for Those who are Overlooked – Insider Perspectives on Care Practices and Cooperative Work of Elderly Informal Caregivers

Marén Schorch, Lin Wan, David Randall, Volker Wulf

Proceedings of the ACM Conference of Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW 2016), ACM Press New York, 2016, 787-799

Abstract / Keywords / PDF

 
 

Keywords:
 

Aging society; caregiver; cooperation; health; ethnography

Abstract:
 

This paper focuses on the complex and intimate setting of domestic home care. The majority of care for chronically ill people is realized by non-professionals, the relatives, who are often overlooked. Many of these informal caregivers are also elderly and face multiple, seriously demanding challenges in the context of informal care 24/7. In order to support this increasing user group, their cooperative work and coordination adequately, it is essential to gain a better understanding of their care practices and needs. This paper is based on ethnography in ten households in Germany. It combines data from the analysis of participant observations over eight months, interviews and cultural probes. Besides detailed descriptions of two cases, the central features of informal care experience and implications for design are discussed: the self-concept of the caregivers as being care experts, the need for social support, timing issues and coordination with other actors in this field.

 

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Practice-based Design of a Neighborhood Portal: Focusing on Elderly Tenants in a City Quarter Living Lab

Claudia Müller, Dominik Hornung, Theodor Hamm, Volker Wulf

Proceedings of ACM Conference on Computer Human Interaction (CHI 2015), ACM-Press, New York 2015, 2295-2304

Abstract / Keywords / PDF

 
 

Keywords:
 

Wandering behavior, GPS monitoring system, design research, joint research

Abstract:
 

We present a user-centered development process for a GPS monitoring system to be used in dementia care to support care for persons with wandering behavior. The usage of GPS systems in dementia care is still very low. The paper takes a socio-technical stance on development and appropriation of GPS technology in dementia care and assesses the practical and ideological issues surrounding care to understand why. The results include: 1) Results from qualitative user studies from which design ideas, implications and requirements for design and redesign were developed. 2) Description of the politics, negotiations, and challenges encountered in the project at hand. These processual matters had a powerful impact on the product that was finally envisaged. The design process was taken as a whole to illuminate the way in which design outcomes are arrived at and to foster discussion about how ‘best practice’ might possibly be achieved.

 

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5.2 Opinion Pieces

 

Remarks on Health and Ageing Societies

Rob Procter

University of Warwick, UK

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Re-framing how we engage with health and aging and technology

Geraldine Fitzpatrick

Technische Universität Wien, Österreich

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Introduction: Community and Political Activism

Volker Wulf, Konstantin Aal, Anne Weibert, Markus Rohde

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6.1 Publications

 

Extending Value Sensitive Design to Off-the-Shelf Technology: Lessons Learned from a Local Intercultural Computer Club

Anne Weibert, Dave Randall, Volker Wulf

Interacting with Computers Vol. 29, No. 5, 2017, 715-736

Abstract / Keywords / PDF

 

 

Keywords:

 

children; collaborative and social computing; computer clubs; informal education; interculturalism; value sensitive design

Abstract:

 

Studying the setup and development of an initiative of computer clubs in intercultural neighbor- hoods, this paper builds on the theory and method associated with value sensitive design to account for the use of off-the-shelf technology in a diverse cultural context, and over an extended period of time. We present three cases from one of these computer clubs, each at a different point in time in the club’s development. Central factors are identified that impact the course of a socio-technical initiative. We highlight the challenges inherent in matching existing ICT with the values both explicitly identified in the initiative and which evolve over time. Our study highlights the relevance of open communication structures among researchers and local practitioners, as well as methodological support that is needed to span a wide range of user experiences. Both aspects are key to making value sensitive design a lived experience on the diverse community level.

 

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Analyzing Political Activists’ Organization Practices: Findings from a Long Term Case Study of the European Social Forum

Saqib Saeed, Markus Rohde & Volker Wulf

Computer Supported Cooperative Work: The Journal of Collaborative Computing (JCSCW), Vol. 20, No. 4-5, 2011, 265-304

Abstract / Keywords / PDF

 

 

Keywords:

 

ethnographic case study, technology and the third sector, community informatics, social movements and ICTs, political organizing, meta-coordination

Abstract:

 

Designing ICT support for transnational networks of social activists is a challenge due to diverse organizational structures, cultural identities, political ideologies, and financial conditions. In this paper we present empirical findings on ICT usage in the organizing process of the European Social Forum (ESF) covering a period of almost 3 years. The European Social Forum is a platform for political activists involved in the anti-globalization movement. During our data collection period, the 5th and 6th European Social Fora were held in Malmo (2008) and Istanbul (2010). The paper describes complex social practices in organizing ESF events. We use the term fragmented meta-coordination to denote this type of practice. Mundane IT applications, such as a mailing list and a content management system, play a central role in enabling different aspects of fragmented meta-coordination. The findings also indicate how lacking resources, organizational distribution, and technical limitations hamper the preparation process and reduce the transparency of political decision making. Our analysis highlights central organizational and technological challenges related to ICT appropriation in transnational networks of social activists.

 

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The Use of Private Mobile Phones at War: Accounts From the Donbas Conflict

Irina Shklovski, Volker Wulf

Proceedings of ACM Conference on Computer Human Interaction (CHI 2018), ACM-Press, New York: paper 386

Abstract / Keywords / PDF

 

 

Keywords:

 

HMobile Media; ICT Infrastructures; Field Study; Appro- priation; Political Conflict; War

Abstract:

 

Studying technology use in unstable and life-threatening conditions can help highlight assumptions of use built into technologies and foreground contradictions in the design of devices and services. This paper provides an account of how soldiers, volunteers, and civilians use mobile tech- nologies in wartime, reporting on fieldwork conducted in Western Russia and Eastern Ukraine with people close to or participating directly in the armed conflict in the Don- bas region. We document how private mobile phones and computers became a crucial but ambiguous infrastructure despite their lack of durability in extreme conditions of a military conflict, and their government and military sur- veillance potential. Our participants rely on a combination of myths and significant technical knowledge to negotiate the possibilities mobile technologies offer and the life- threatening reality of enemy surveillance they engender. We consider the problems of always-on always-connected devices under conditions of war and surveillance and our responsibilities as HCI practitioners in the design of social technologies

 

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Fighting against the Wall: Social Media use by Political Activists in a Palestinian Village

Volker Wulf, Konstantin Aal, Ibrahim Abu Ktesh, Meryem Atam, Kai Schubert, George P. Yerousis, Dave Randall, Markus Rohde

Proceedings of ACM Conference on Computer Human Interaction (CHI 2013), ACM-Press, New York 2013, 1979-1988

Abstract / Keywords / PDF

 

 

Keywords:

 

Social Media, field study, appropriation, political protest

Abstract:

 

We analyze practices of political activists in a Palestinian village located in the West Bank, who organize weekly demonstrations against Israel’s settlement policy and the separation wall. Over a period of 28 months, we conducted a field study consisting of eight days ‘on the ground’ observation and interviewing, and extensive monitoring of Internet communication. We describe the activists’ background and their efforts to organize these demonstrations under conditions of military occupation. Over time, we observe the role both digital and material factors play in the organization of protest.

 

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Out of Syria: Mobile Media in Use at the Time of Civil War

Markus Rohde, Konstantin Aal, Kaoru Misaki, Dave Randall, Anne Weibert & Volker Wulf

International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, Vol 32, 2016, No 7, 515 – 531

Abstract / Keywords / PDF

 

 

Keywords:

Abstract:

 

Social media usage during the recent uprisings in Arab countries has gained increasing attention in CHI research. This study adds to these insights by providing some findings on the use of ICT, specifically mobile media, by opposition forces and political activists during the Syrian civil war. The presented study is based on 17 interviews with Syrian FSA fighters, activists and refugees. A first analysis showed evidence for some very specific use patterns during wartime (compared to media usage of political activists under less anomic conditions). The study also describes a fragmented telecom infrastructure in Syria: government-controlled regions offer fairly intact infrastructures while rebel- controlled regions have been cut-off from telephone and Internet. Moreover, the central and very critical role of mobile video for documenting, mobilization, and propaganda is discussed.

 

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Guerilla Warfare and the Use of New (and Some Old) Technology: Lessons from FARC-EP’s Armed Struggle in Colombia

Débora de Castro Leal, Max Krueger, Kaoru Misaki, David Randall, Volker Wulf

CHI 2019, ACM Press, New York: paper 580

Abstract / Keywords / PDF

 

 

Keywords:

 

Infrastructure, Appropriation, Political Conflict, War

Abstract:

 

Studying armed political struggles from a CSCW perspective can throw the complex interactions between culture, technology, materiality and political conflict into sharp relief. Such studies highlight interrelations that otherwise remain under-remarked upon, despite their severe consequences. The present paper provides an account of the armed struggle of one of the Colombian guerrillas, FARC-EP, with the Colombian army. We document how radio-based communication became a crucial, but ambiguous infrastructure of war. The sudden introduction of localization technologies by the Colombian army presented a lethal threat to the guerrilla group. Our interviewees report a severe learning process to diminish this new risk, relying on a combination of in- formed beliefs and significant technical understanding. We end with a discussion of the role of HCI in considerations of ICT use in armed conflicts and introduce the concept of counter-appropriation as process of adapting one's practices to other's appropriation of technology in conflict.

 

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6.2 Opinion Piece

 

Understanding Life on the Ground with Technology

Lance Bennett

Senior Research Fellow, Center for Journalism, Media & Democracy, University of Washington, Seattle, USA

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Introduction to End User Development

Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek, Gunnar Stevens, Volker Wulf

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7.1 Publications

 

End-User Development: an Emerging Paradigm

Henry Lieberman, Fabio Paternó, Markus Klann and Volker Wulf

Henry Lieberman; Fabio Paternó; Volker Wulf (eds): End User Development, Springer, Dordrecht 2006, 9 – 16

Abstract / Keywords / PDF

 
 

Keywords:
 

Tailorability, User Interface, Direct Manipulation, Field Study, Empirical Evaluation

Abstract:
 

The design of the user interface plays a major role in encouraging users to tailor an application. In this paper, we focus on a particular design issue. The question is how to support users in finding those functions, which allow to tailor an application. An empirical investigation shows that this is a major problem when users try to tailor applications. In order to tackle this problem we develop the concept of direct activation, which simplifies to find a tailoring function at the moment a tailorable function needs to be modified. To evaluate the effectiveness of the concept of direct activation in supporting tailoring activities, we have implemented the concept and carried out an evaluation study. The results of this study support our assumption that direct activation eases tailoring activities. Finally, the potentials and limitations of this concept are discussed.

 

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Component-based tailorability: Enabling highly flexible software applications

Volker Wulf, Volkmar Pipek, Markus Won

International Journal on Human-Computer Studies (IJHCS), Vol. 66, No. 1, 2008, 1 – 22

Abstract / Keywords / PDF

 
 

Keywords:
 

Tailorability; End user development; Component-based systems; CSCW

Abstract:
 

Component technologies are perceived as an important means to keep software architectures flexible. Flexibility offered by component technologies typically addresses software developers at design time. However, the design of software which should support social systems, such as work groups or communities, also demands ‘use-time’, or technically spoken, ‘run-time’ flexibility. In this paper, we summarize a decade of research efforts on component-based approaches to flexibilize groupware applications at run-time. We address the user as a ‘casual programmer’ who develops and individualizes software for his work context. To deal with the challenges of run-time flexibility, we developed a design approach which covers three levels: software architecture, user interface, and collaboration support. With regard to the software architecture, a component model, called FLEXIBEANS, has been developed. The FREEVOLVE platform serves as an environment in which component-based applications can be tailored at run-time. Additionally, we have developed three different types of graphical user interfaces, enabling users to tailor their applications by recomposing components. To enable collaborative tailoring activities, we have integrated functions that allow sharing component structures among users. We also present different types of support techniques which are integrated into the user interface in order to enable users’ individual and collaborative tailoring activities. We conclude by elaborating on the notion of ‘software infrastructure’ which offers a holistic approach to support design activities of professional and non-professional programmers.

 

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Appropriation Infrastructure: Mediating appropriation and production work

Gunnar Stevens, Volkmar Pipek, and Volker Wulf

Journal of Organizational and End User Computing (JOEUC), Vol. 22, Issue 2, 2010, 58-81

Abstract / Keywords / PDF

 
 

Keywords:

Abstract:
 

End User Development offers technological flexibility to encourage the appropriation of software applications within specific contexts of use. Appropriation needs to be understood as a phenomenon of many collaborative and creative activities. To support appropriation, we propose integrating communication infrastructure into software application that follows a “easy-to-collaborate“-principle. Such an appropriation infrastructure stimulates the experience sharing among a heterogeneous product community and supports the situated development of usages. Taking the case of the BSCWeasel groupware, we demonstrate how an appropriation infrastructure can be realized. Empirical results from the BSCWeasel project demonstrate the impact of such an infrastructure on the appropriation and design process. Based on these results, we argue that the social construction of IT artifacts should be tightly integrated in the material construction of IT artifacts in bridging design and use discourses.

 

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Direct Activation: A Concept to Encourage Tailoring Activities

Volker Wulf and Björn Golombek

Behaviour & Information Technology, Vol. 20, No. 4, 2001, 249 - 263

Abstract / Keywords / PDF

 
 

Keywords:
 

Tailorability, User Interface, Direct Manipulation, Field Study, Empirical Evaluation

Abstract:
 

The design of the user interface plays a major role in encouraging users to tailor an application. In this paper, we focus on a particular design issue. The question is how to support users in finding those functions, which allow to tailor an application. An empirical investigation shows that this is a major problem when users try to tailor applications. In order to tackle this problem we develop the concept of direct activation, which simplifies to find a tailoring function at the moment a tailorable function needs to be modified. To evaluate the effectiveness of the concept of direct activation in supporting tailoring activities, we have implemented the concept and carried out an evaluation study. The results of this study support our assumption that direct activation eases tailoring activities. Finally, the potentials and limitations of this concept are discussed.

 

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What Happened in my Home?: An End-User Development Approach for Smart Home Data Visualization

Nico Castelli, Corinna Ogonowski, Timo Jakobi, Martin Stein, Gunnar Stevens, Volker Wulf

Proceedings of ACM Conference on Computer Human Interaction (CHI 2017): 853-866

Abstract / Keywords / PDF

 
 

Keywords:
 

Smart Home; Qualitative Study; Data Visualization; domestic routines; Living Lab; Interface Design

Abstract:
 

Smart home systems change the way we experience the home. While there are established research fields within HCI for visualizing specific use cases of a smart home, studies targeting user demands on visualizations spanning across multiple use cases are rare. Especially, individual data-related demands pose a challenge for usable visualizations. To investigate potentials of an end-user development (EUD) approach for flexibly supporting such demands, we developed a smart home system featuring both pre-defined visualizations and a visualization creation tool. To evaluate our concept, we installed our prototype in 12 households as part of a Living Lab study. Results are based on three interview studies, a design workshop and system log data. We identified eight overarching interests in home data and show how participants used pre-defined visualizations to get an overview and the creation tool to not only address specific use cases but also to answer questions by creating temporary visualizations.

 

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3D Printers as Sociable Technologies: Taking Appropriation Infrastructures to the Internet of Things

Thomas Ludwig, Alexander Boden, Volkmar Pipek

ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI) 24(2), Article No.: 17, 1–28

Abstract / Keywords / PDF

 
 

Keywords:
 

(User Interfaces ): User-centered design, Sociable Technologies, End-User Development, Appropriation Infrastructure, Infrastructuring, 3D Printer, Internet of Things, User-Centered Design, Design Case Study

Abstract:
 

3D printers have become continuously more present and are a perspicuous example of how technologies are becoming more complex and ubiquitous. To some extent, the emerging technological infrastructures around them exemplify ways how digitalization will change production machines and lines, in general, in the Internet of Things (IoT). From an End-User Development perspective, the main question is how users can be supported in managing those complex digital production lines. To reach a better understanding, we carefully analyzed 3D printers as an example of highly digitalized production machines with regard to the creative activities of their users that help them to make these machines work for their practices. In our study of appropriation processes, we are concerned with situational and social aspects of the configuration and practice challenges associated with making digitalization work and how IoT technologies can support these collaborative appro- priation activities of end users by making these machines more “sociable.” We therefore conceptualize the idea of “Sociable Technologies” and implement a prototype that provides hardware-integrated affordances for communicating and documenting practices of usage. Based on the findings of our evaluation, we derive lessons learnt when aiming at making complex technologies more usable.

 

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PrintARface: Supporting the Exploration of Cyber-Physical Systems through Augmented Reality

Florian Jasche and Thomas Ludwig

Proceedings of the 11th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Shaping Experiences, Shaping Society, New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery, url, doi:10.1145/3419249.3420162

Abstract / Keywords / PDF

 
 

Keywords:
 

Human–machine interface, 3D printing, augmented reality, sociable technologies, appropriation

Abstract:
 

The increasing functionalities and close integration of hardware and software of modern cyber-physical systems present users with distinct challenges in applying and, especially, appropriating those systems within their practices. Existing approaches to design for appropriation and the development of sociable technologies that might support users seeking to understand how to make such technologies work in a specific practice, often lack appropriate user interfaces to explain the internal and environment-related behavior of a technology. By taking the example of 3D printing, we examine how augmented reality can be used as a novel human–machine interface to ease the way for hardware-related appropriation sup- port. Within this paper we designed, implemented and evaluated a prototype called PrintARface, that extends a physical 3D printer by incorporating virtual components. Reflections upon the evaluation of our prototype are used to provide insights that foster the development of hardware-related appropriation support by encompassing augmented reality-based human–machine interfaces.

 

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7.2 Opinion Pieces

 

End-User Development: From Creating Technologies to Transforming Cultures

Gerhard Fischer

University of Colorado, Boulder CO, USA

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Commenting on EUD section of Siegen group’s research summary volume

Anders Morch

Department of Education, University of Oslo

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Introduction to Conceptual Foundations and Contributions

Volker Wulf, Gunnar Stevens, and Markus Rohde

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8.1 Publications

 

Towards an Integrated Organization and Technology Development

Volker Wulf; Markus Rohde

Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Designing Interactive Systems, 23. - 25.8.1995, Ann Arbor (Michigan), ACM-Press, New York 1995 55-64

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Infrastructuring: Towards an Integrated Perspective on the Design and Use of Information Technology

Volkmar Pipek; Volker Wulf

Journal of the Association of Information System (JAIS), Vol. 10, Issue 5, May 2009, 306-332

Abstract / Keywords / PDF

 

 

Keywords:

 

Appropriation infrastructure; sociable technologies; infrastructuring; empirical study; user-centered design; 3D printing; hardware-related context.

Abstract:

 

Over the last years, digital fabrication technologies such as 3D printers have become more and more common at universities and small businesses as well as in communities of hobbyist makers. The high complexity of such technologies, the rapid technological progress and the close link between hardware and software in this field poses challenges for users and communities learning how to operate these machines, especially in the contexts of existing (and changing) practices. We present an empirical study on the appropriation of 3D printers in two different communities and derive design implications and challenges for building appropriation infrastructures to help users face those challenges and making technologies more sociable.

 

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Making Use - Understanding, Studying, and Supporting Appropriation

Gunnar Stevens; Volkmar Pipek

V. Wulf, V. Pipek, D. Randall, M. Rohde, K. Schmidt, G. Stevens (eds): Socio Informatics – A Practice-based Perspective on the Design and Use of IT Artefacts, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2018, 139 - 176

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Towards sociable technologies: an empirical study on designing appropriation infrastructures for 3D printing

Thomas Ludwig, Oliver Stickel, Alexander Boden, Volkmar Pipek

Designing Interactive Systems Conference 2014, DIS '14, Vancouver, BC, Canada, June 21-25, 2014, Ron Wakkary, Steve Harrison, Carman Neustaedter, Shaowen Bardzell, Eric Paulos (Hrsg.), S. 835-844, ACM, url, doi:10.1145/2598510.2598528

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Grounded Design: A Research Paradigm in Practice-Based Computing

Gunnar Stevens, Markus Rohde, Matthias Betz, Volker Wulf

V. Wulf, V. Pipek, D. Randall, M. Rohde, K. Schmidt, G. Stevens (eds): Socio Informatics – A Practice-based Perspective on the Design and Use of IT Artefacts, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2018, 23 – 46

Abstract / Keywords / PDF

 

 

Keywords:

 

knowledge sharing, expertise sharing, CSCW, collective memory, organizational memory, expertise location, expert finder, expertise finding, knowledge management, sociotechnical, collective intelligence.

Abstract:

 

Knowledge Management (KM) is a diffuse and controversial term, which has been used by a large number of research disciplines. CSCW, over the last 20 years, has taken a critical stance towards most of these approaches, and instead, CSCW shifted the focus towards a practice-based perspective. This paper surveys CSCW researchers’ viewpoints on what has become called ‘knowledge sharing’ and ‘expertise sharing’. These are based in an understanding of the social contexts of knowledge work and practices, as well as in an emphasis on communication among knowledgeable humans. The paper provides a summary and overview of the two strands of knowledge and expertise sharing in CSCW, which, from an analytical standpoint, roughly represent ‘generations’ of research: an ‘object-centric’ and a ‘people-centric’ view. We also survey the challenges and opportunities ahead.

 

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Practice-Based Computing: Empirical Grounded Conceptualizations Derived from Design Case Studies

Volker Wulf, Claudia Müller, Volkmar Pipek, David Randall, Markus Rohde, Gunnar Stevens

Wulf, V.; Schmidt, K.; Randall, D. (eds): Designing Socially Embedded Technologies in the Real World, Springer, London 2015, 111 – 150

Abstract / Keywords / PDF

 

 

Keywords:

 

Infrastructuring, Appropriation, Resonance Activities, Sociable Technologies, CSCW

Abstract:

 

'Infrastructuring' as a concept draws attention to the way in which a designed artifact or system is not the end of the development process. Rather, technology development takes place up to, and including, its successful establishment in a practice context. In this way, the role of end users as designer comes into focus. Based on the so-called 'point of infrastructure' as the moment that initiates a breakdown or an innovation-driven reconsideration of the current infrastructure use, end users themselves start configuring, tailoring or developing new conventions until the point has been reached in which a new technology usage has been successfully established. But points of infrastructure do not only provoke end-user driven in-situ design activities and make visible prior preparatory activities, but it also create so-called resonance activities that encompass all observing and communicating aspects of what has become visible within the work environment or to other work environments. Examining these (collaborative) resonance activities can be starting points for capturing the (social) appropriation activities of certain technology usages and the relations between different points of infrastructure. But how to capture those resonance activities and if this can be done, how to design technological support for them is still an open question. Based on previous work outlined in literature and experiences made within an empirical study around appropriation activities during 3D printing processes, we therefore outline the concept of sociable technologies as a technological approach for capturing as well as supporting resonance activities and therefore enabling collaborative infrastructuring activities.

 

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Sharing Knowledge and Expertise: The CSCW View of Knowledge Management

Mark S. Ackerman, Juri Dachtera, Volkmar Pipek & Volker Wulf

Computer Supported Cooperative Work: The Journal of Collaborative Computing (JCSCW), Vol. 22, No 4-6, 2013, 531 – 573

Abstract / Keywords / PDF

 

 

Keywords:

 

knowledge sharing, expertise sharing, CSCW, collective memory, organizational memory, expertise location, expert finder, expertise finding, knowledge management, sociotechnical, collective intelligence.

Abstract:

 

Knowledge Management (KM) is a diffuse and controversial term, which has been used by a large number of research disciplines. CSCW, over the last 20 years, has taken a critical stance towards most of these approaches, and instead, CSCW shifted the focus towards a practice-based perspective. This paper surveys CSCW researchers’ viewpoints on what has become called ‘knowledge sharing’ and ‘expertise sharing’. These are based in an understanding of the social contexts of knowledge work and practices, as well as in an emphasis on communication among knowledgeable humans. The paper provides a summary and overview of the two strands of knowledge and expertise sharing in CSCW, which, from an analytical standpoint, roughly represent ‘generations’ of research: an ‘object-centric’ and a ‘people-centric’ view. We also survey the challenges and opportunities ahead.

 

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Designing for Collaborative Infrastructuring: Supporting Resonance Activities

Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek

Proc. ACM Hum.-Comput. Interact. 2(CSCW), S. 113:1--113:29, New York, NY, USA: ACM, url, doi:10.1145/3274382

Abstract / Keywords / PDF

 

 

Keywords:

 

Infrastructuring, Appropriation, Resonance Activities, Sociable Technologies, CSCW

Abstract:

 

'Infrastructuring' as a concept draws attention to the way in which a designed artifact or system is not the end of the development process. Rather, technology development takes place up to, and including, its successful establishment in a practice context. In this way, the role of end users as designer comes into focus. Based on the so-called 'point of infrastructure' as the moment that initiates a breakdown or an innovation-driven reconsideration of the current infrastructure use, end users themselves start configuring, tailoring or developing new conventions until the point has been reached in which a new technology usage has been successfully established. But points of infrastructure do not only provoke end-user driven in-situ design activities and make visible prior preparatory activities, but it also create so-called resonance activities that encompass all observing and communicating aspects of what has become visible within the work environment or to other work environments. Examining these (collaborative) resonance activities can be starting points for capturing the (social) appropriation activities of certain technology usages and the relations between different points of infrastructure. But how to capture those resonance activities and if this can be done, how to design technological support for them is still an open question. Based on previous work outlined in literature and experiences made within an empirical study around appropriation activities during 3D printing processes, we therefore outline the concept of sociable technologies as a technological approach for capturing as well as supporting resonance activities and therefore enabling collaborative infrastructuring activities.

 

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8.2 Opinion Pieces

 

Visioning a future world of CSCW design

Kari Kuutti

University of Oulu, Finland

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Understanding and shaping socio-technological transformations

Sigrid Kannengießer

Universität Bremen

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Grounding Design

Geof Bowker

University of California, Irvine, USA

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